51.  Consider a 3puzzle where, like in the usual 8puzzle game, a tile can only move to an adjacent empty space. Given the initial state as below, which of the following state cannot be reached? 
a.  A 
b.  B 
c.  C 
d.  D 
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Answer: (c).C

52.  A software program that infers and manipulates existing knowledge in order to generate new knowledge is known as: 
a.  Data Dictionary 
b.  Reference Mechanism 
c.  Inference Engine 
d.  Control Strategy 
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Answer: (c).Inference Engine

53.  Which of the following arguments are not valid?
(a) “If Gora gets the job and works hard, then he will be promoted. If Gora gets promotion, then he will be happy. He will not be happy, therefore, either he will not get the job or he will not work hard”. (b) “Either Puneet is not guilty or Pankaj is telling the truth. Pankaj is not telling the truth, therefore, Puneet is not guilty”. (c) If n is a real number such that n>1, then n^2>1. Suppose that n^2>1, then n>1. 
a.  (a) and (c) 
b.  (b) and (c) 
c.  (a), (b) and (c) 
d.  (a) and (b) 
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Answer: (b).(b) and (c)

54.  Let P(m,n) be the statement “m divides n” where the Universe of discourse for both the variables is the set of positive integers. Determine the truth values of the following propositions.
(a) ∃m ∀n P(m,n) (b) ∀n P(1,n) (c) ∀m ∀n P(m,n) 
a.  (a)True; (b)True; (c)False 
b.  (a)True; (b)False; (c)False 
c.  (a)False; (b)False; (c)False 
d.  (a)True; (b)True; (c)True 
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Answer: (a).(a)True; (b)True; (c)False

55.  Match the following terms:
List  I List  II (a) Vacuous proof (i) A proof that the implication p→q is true based on the fact that p is false (b) Trivial proof (ii) A proof that the implication p→q is true based on the fact that q is true (c) Direct proof (iii) A proof that the implication p→q is true that proceeds by showing that q must be true when p is true. (d) Indirect proof (iv) A proof that the implication p→q is true that proceeds by showing that p must be false when q is false. Codes: (a) (b) (c) (d) 
a.  (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 
b.  (ii) (iii) (i) (iv) 
c.  (iii) (ii) (iv) (i) 
d.  (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) 
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Answer: (a).(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

56.  Consider the compound propositions given below as:
(a) p˅~(p˄q) (b) (p˄~q)˅~(p˄q) (c) p˄(q˅r) Which of the above propositions are tautologies? 
a.  (a) and (c) 
b.  (b) and (c) 
c.  only (a) 
d.  (a), (b) and (c) 
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Answer: (c).only (a)

57.  Which of the following property/ies a Group G must hold, in order to be an Abelian group?
(a) The distributive property (b) The commutative property (c) The symmetric property 
a.  (a) and (b) 
b.  (b) and (c) 
c.  (a) only 
d.  (b) only 
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Answer: (d).(b) only

58.  Given the following set of prolog clauses:
father(X, Y): parent(X, Y), male(X), parent(Sally, Bob), parent(Jim, Bob), parent(Alice, Jane), parent(Thomas, Jane), male(Bob), male(Jim), female(Salley), female(Alice). How many atoms are matched to the variable ‘X’ before the query father(X, Jane) reports a Result? 
a.  1 
b.  2 
c.  3 
d.  4 
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Answer: (a).1

59.  Forward chaining systems are ............. where as backward chaining systems are ................ 
a.  Data driven, Data driven 
b.  Goal driven, Data driven 
c.  Data driven, Goal driven 
d.  Goal driven, Goal driven 
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Answer: (c).Data driven, Goal driven

60.  A horn clause is ...................... 
a.  A clause in which no variables occur in the expression 
b.  A clause that has at least one negative literal 
c.  A disjunction of a number of literals 
d.  A clause that has at most one positive literal 
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Answer: (d).A clause that has at most one positive literal
